39 Philosophy of music Adorno, a trained classical pianist, wrote The Philosophy of Modern Music (1949 in which he, in essence, polemicizes against musicbecause it has become part of the ideology of advanced capitalist society page needed and the false consciousness that contributes to social domination. 24 Frankfurt School theorists explicitly linked up with the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant, in which the term critique meant philosophical reflection on the limits of claims made for certain kinds of knowledge and direct connection between such critique and the emphasis on moral autonomy. 18 Horkheimer maintained that critical theory should be directed at the totality of society in its historical specificity (i.e., how it came to be configured at a specific point in time just as it should improve understanding of society by integrating all the major social. Adorno, Minima Moralia: Reflections on a Damaged Life, Verso (2006.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. 25 History, according to Hegel, proceeds and evolves in a dialectical manner: the present embodies the rational sublation, or "synthesis of past contradictions.
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A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Continuum International Publishing Group,. Calling for what Charles Taylor has named a "new department" of reason, 48 with a possibility-disclosing role that Kompridis calls " reflective disclosure Kompridis argues that critical theory must embrace its neglected German romantic inheritance and once again imagine alternatives to existing social and political. The philosophical tradition now referred to as the "Frankfurt School" is perhaps particularly associated with Max Horkheimer (philosopher, sociologist and social psychologist who took over as the institute's director in 1930 and recruited many of the school's most talented theorists, including Theodor. Its thinkers were particularly influenced by the failure of the communist revolution in Western Europe (precisely where Marx had predicted that a communist revolution would take place) and by the rise of Nazism in such an economically and technologically advanced nation as Germany. 45 It seems, however, that Habermas has repeated rather than avoided Hegel's mistake, creating a theoretical paradigm so comprehensive that in one stroke it also solves too well the dilemmas of the philosophy of the subject and the problem of modernity's self-reassurance. Initially outlined by Max Horkheimer in his Traditional and Critical Theory (1937 critical theory may be defined as a self-conscious social critique that is aimed at change and emancipation through enlightenment and that does not cling dogmatically to its own doctrinal assumptions. London New York 1994,. 5 However, the school can trace its earliest roots back to Felix Weil, who used money from his father's grain business to finance the Institut.